Chapter 17. MySQL Proxy

Table of Contents

17.1. MySQL Proxy Supported Platforms
17.2. Installing MySQL Proxy
17.2.1. Installing MySQL Proxy from a binary distribution
17.2.2. Installing MySQL Proxy from a source distribution
17.2.3. Installing MySQL Proxy from the Subversion repository
17.3. MySQL Proxy Command-Line Options
17.4. MySQL Proxy Scripting
17.4.1. Proxy Scripting Sequence During Query Injection
17.4.2. Internal Structures
17.4.3. Capturing a connection with connect_server()
17.4.4. Examining the handshake with read_handshake()
17.4.5. Examining the authentication credentials with read_auth()
17.4.6. Accessing authentication information with read_auth_result()
17.4.7. Manipulating Queries with read_query()
17.4.8. Manipulating Results with read_query_result()
17.5. Using MySQL Proxy
17.5.1. Using the Administration Interface

The MySQL Proxy is an application that communicates over the network using the MySQL Network Protocol and provides communication between one or more MySQL servers and one or more MySQL clients. In the most basic configuration, MySQL Proxy simply passes on queries from the client to the MySQL Server and returns the responses from the MySQL Server to the client.

Because MySQL Proxy uses the MySQL network protocol, any MySQL compatible client (include the command line client, any clients using the MySQL client libraries, and any connector that supports the MySQL network protocol) can connect to the proxy without modification.

In addition to the basic pass-through configuration, the MySQL Proxy is also capable of monitoring and altering the communication between the client and the server. This interception of the queries enables you to add profiling, and the interception of the exchanges is scriptable using the Lua scripting language.

By intercepting the queries from the client, the proxy can insert additional queries into the list of queries sent to the server, and remove the additional results when they are returned by the server. Using this functionality you can add informational statements to each query, for example to monitor their execution time or progress, and separately log the results, while still returning the results from the original query to the client.

The proxy allows you to perform additional monitoring, filtering or manipulation on queries without you having to make any modifications to the client and without the client even being aware that it is communicating with anything but a genuine MySQL server.


MySQL Proxy is currently an Alpha release and should not be used within production environments.


MySQL Proxy is compatible with MySQL 5.0.x or later. Testing has not been performed with Version 4.1. Please provide feedback on your experiences via the MySQL Proxy Forum.

17.1. MySQL Proxy Supported Platforms

MySQL Proxy is currently available as a pre-compiled binary for the following platforms:

  • Linux (including RedHat, Fedora, Debian, SuSE) and derivatives.

  • Mac OS X

  • FreeBSD


  • Sun Solaris

Other Unix/Linux platforms not listed should be compatible by using the source package and building MySQL Proxy locally.

System requirements for the MySQL Proxy application are the same as the main MySQL server. Currently MySQL Proxy is compatible only with MySQL 5.0.1 and later. MySQL Proxy is provided as a standalone, statically linked binary. You do not need to have MySQL or Lua installed.

17.2. Installing MySQL Proxy

You have three choices for installing MySQL Proxy:

17.2.1. Installing MySQL Proxy from a binary distribution

If you download the binary packages then you need only to extract the package and then copy the mysql-proxy file to your desired location. For example:

$ tar zxf mysql-proxy-0.5.0.tar.gz
$ cp ./mysql-proxy-0.5.0/sbin/mysql-proxy /usr/local/sbin

17.2.2. Installing MySQL Proxy from a source distribution

If you have downloaded the source package then you will need to compile the MySQL Proxy before using it. To build you will need to have the following installed:

  • libevent 1.x or higher (1.3b or later is preferred)

  • lua 5.1.x or higher

  • glib2 2.6.0 or higher

  • pkg-config

  • MySQL 5.0.x or higher developer files


On some operating systems you may need to manually build the required components to get the latest version. If you are having trouble compiling MySQL Proxy then consider using one of the binary distributions.

Once these components are installed, you need to configure and then build:

$ tar zxf mysql-proxy-0.5.0.tar.gz
$ cd mysql-proxy-0.5.0
$ ./configure
$ make

If you want to test the build, then use the check target to make:

$ make check

The tests try to connect to localhost using the root user. If you need to provide a password, set the MYSQL_PASSWORD environment variable:

$ MYSQL_PASSWORD=root_pwd make check

You can install using the install target:

$ make install

By default mysql-proxy is installed into /usr/local/sbin/mysql-proxy. The Lua example scripts are copied into /usr/local/share.

17.2.3. Installing MySQL Proxy from the Subversion repository

The MySQL Proxy source is available through a public Subversion repository and is the quickest way to get hold of the latest releases and fixes.

To build from the Subversion repository, you need the following components already installed:

  • Subversion 1.3.0 or higher

  • libtool 1.5 or higher

  • autoconf 2.56 or higher

  • automake 1.9 or higher

  • libevent 1.x or higher (1.3b or later is preferred)

  • lua 5.1.x or higher

  • glib2 2.4.0 or higher

  • pkg-config

  • MySQL 5.0.x or higher developer files

To checkout a local copy of the Subversion repository, use svn:

$ svn co mysql-proxy

The above command will download a complete version of the Subversion repository for mysql-proxy. The main source files are located within the trunk subdirectory. The configuration scripts need to be generated before you can configure and build mysql-proxy. The script will generate the configuration scripts for you:

$ sh ./

The script creates the standard configure script, which you can then use to configure and build with make:

$ ./configure
$ make
$ make install

If you want to create a standalone source distribution, identical to the source distribution available for download:

$ make distcheck

The above will create the file mysql-proxy-0.5.0.tar.gz within the current directory.

17.3. MySQL Proxy Command-Line Options

To start mysql-proxy you can just run the command directly. However, for most situations you will want to specify at the very least the address/hostname and port number of the backend MySQL server to which the MySQL Proxy should pass on queries.

You can get a list of the supported command-line options using the --help-all command-line option. The majority of these options set up the environment, either in terms of the address/port number that mysql-proxy should listen on for connections, or the onward connection to a MySQL server. A full description of the options is shown below:

  • --help-all — show all help options.

  • --help-admin — show options for the admin-module.

  • --help-proxy — Show options for the proxy-module.

  • --admin-address=host:port — specify the hostname (or IP address) and port for the administration port. The default is localhost:4041.

  • --proxy-address=host:port — the listening hostname (or IP address) and port of the proxy server. The default is localhost:4040.

  • --proxy-read-only-address=host:port — the listening hostname (or IP address) and port of the proxy server for read-only connections. The default is localhost:4042.

  • --proxy-backend-addresses=host:port — the hostname (or IP address) and port of the MySQL server to connect to. You can specify multiple backend servers by supplying multiple options. Clients are connected to each backend server in round-robin fashion. For example, if you specify two servers A and B, the first client connection will go to server A; the second client connection to server B and the third client connection to server A.

  • --proxy-skip-profiling — disables profiling of queries (tracking time statistics). The default is for tracking to be enabled.

  • --proxy-fix-bug-25371 — gets round an issue when connecting to a MySQL server later than 5.1.12 when using a MySQL client library of any earlier version.

  • --proxy-lua-script=file — specify the Lua script file to be loaded. Note that the script file is not physically loaded and parsed until a connection is made. Also note that the specified Lua script is reloaded for each connection; if the content of the Lua script changes while mysql-proxy is running then the updated content will automatically be used when a new connection is made.

  • --daemon — starts the proxy in daemon mode.

  • --pid-file=file — sets the name of the file to be used to store the process ID.

  • --version — show the version number.

The most common usage is as a simple proxy service (i.e. without addition scripting). For basic proxy operation you must specify at least one proxy-backend-addresses option to specify the MySQL server to connect to by default:

$ mysql-proxy

The default proxy port is 4040, so you can connect to your MySQL server through the proxy by specifying the hostname and port details:

$ mysql --host=localhost --port=4040

If your server requires authentication information then this will be passed through natively without alteration by mysql-proxy, so you must also specify the authentication information if required:

$ mysql --host=localhost --port=4040 \
   --user=username --password=password

You can also connect to a read-only port (which filters out UPDATE and INSERT queries) by connecting to the read-only port. By default the hostname is the default, and the port is 4042, but you can alter the host/port information by using the --proxy-read-only-address command-line option.

For more detailed information on how to use these command line options, and mysql-proxy in general in combination with Lua scripts, see Section 17.5, “Using MySQL Proxy”.

17.4. MySQL Proxy Scripting

You can control how MySQL Proxy manipulates and works with the queries and results that are passed on to the MySQL server through the use of the embedded Lua scripting language. You can find out more about the Lua programming language from the Lua Website.

The primary interaction between MySQL Proxy and the server is provided by defining one or more functions through an Lua script. A number of functions are supported, according to different events and operations in the communication sequence between a client and one or more backend MySQL servers:

  • connect_server() — this function is called each time a connection is made to MySQL Proxy from a client. You can use this function during load-balancing to intercept the original connection and decide which server the client should ultimately be attached to. If you don't define a special solution, then a simple round-robin style distribution is used by default.

  • read_handshake() — this function is called when the initial handshake information is returned by the server. You can capture the handshake information returned and provide additional checks before the authorization exchange takes place.

  • read_auth() — this function is called when the authorization packet (username, password, default database) are submitted by the client to the server for authentication.

  • read_auth_result() — this function is called when the server returns an authorization packet to the client indicating whether the authorization succeeded.

  • read_query() — this function is called each time a query is sent by the client to the server. You can use this to edit and manipulate the original query, including adding new queries before and after the original statement. You can also use this function to return information directly to the client, bypassing the server, which can be useful to filter unwanted queries or queries that exceed known limits.

  • read_query_result() — this function is called each time a result is returned from the server, providing you have manually injected queries into the query queue. If you have not explicitly inject queries within the read_query() function then this function is not triggered. You can use this to edit the result set, or to remove or filter the result sets generated from additional queries you injected into the queue when using read_query().

The table below describes the direction of flow of information at the point when the function is triggered.

FunctionSupplied InformationDirection
connect_server()NoneClient to Server
read_handshake()Handshake packetServer to Client
read_auth()Authorization packetClient to Server
read_auth_result()Authorization responseServer to Client
read_query()QueryClient to Server
read_query_result()Query resultServer to Client

By default, all functions return a result that indicates that the data should be passed on to the client or server (depending on the direction of the information being transferred). This return value can be overridden by explicitly returning a constant indicating that a particular response should be sent. For example, it is possible to construct result set information by hand within read_query() and to return the resultset directly to the client without ever sending the original query to the server.

In addition to these functions, a number of built-in structures provide control over how MySQL Proxy forwards on queries and returns the results by providing a simplified interface to elements such as the list of queries and the groups of result sets that are returned.

17.4.1. Proxy Scripting Sequence During Query Injection

The figure below gives an example of how the proxy might be used when injecting queries into the query queue. Because the proxy sits between the client and MySQL server, what the proxy sends to the server, and the information that the proxy ultimately returns to the client do not have to match or correlate. Once the client has connected to the proxy, the following sequence occurs for each individual query sent by the client.

MySQL Proxy architecture
  1. The client submits one query to the proxy, the read_query() function within the proxy is triggered. The function adds the query to the query queue.

  2. Once manipulation by read_query() has completed, the queries are submitted, sequentially, to the MySQL server.

  3. The MySQL server returns the results from each query, one result set for each query submitted. The read_query_result() function is triggered for each result set, and each invocation can decide which result set to return to the client

For example, you can queue additional queries into the global query queue to be processed by the server. This can be used to add statistical information by adding queries before and after the original query, changing the original query:


Into a sequence of queries:


You can also modify the original statement, for example to add EXPLAIN to each statement executed to get information on how the statement was processed, again altering our original SQL statement into a number of statements:


In both of these examples, the client would have received more result sets than expected. Regardless of how you manipulate the incoming query and the returned result, the number of queries returned by the proxy must match the number of original queries sent by the client.

You could adjust the client to handle the multiple result sets sent by the proxy, but in most cases you will want the existence of the proxy to remain transparent. To ensure that the number of queries and result sets match, you can use the MySQL Proxy read_query_result() to extract the additional result set information and return only the result set the client originally requested back to the client. You can achieve this by giving each query that you add to the query queue a unique ID, and then filter out queries that do not match the original query ID when processing them with read_query_result().

17.4.2. Internal Structures

There are a number of internal structures within the scripting element of MySQL Proxy. The primary structure is proxy and this provides an interface to the many common structures used throughout the script, such as connection lists and configured backend servers. Other structures, such as the incoming packet from the client and result sets are only available within the context of one of the scriptable functions.

connectionA structure containing the active client connections. For a list of attributes, see proxy.connection .
serversA structure containing the list of configured backend servers. For a list of attributes, see proxy.backends .
queriesA structure containing the queue of queries that will be sent to the server during a single client query. For a list of attributes, see proxy.queries .
PROXY_VERSIONThe version number of MySQL Proxy, encoded in hex. You can use this to check that the version number supports a particular option from within the Lua script. Note that the value is encoded as a hex value, so to check the version is at least 0.5.1 you compare against 0x00501.


The proxy.connection object is read only, and provides information about the current connection.

thread_idThe thread ID of the connection.
backend_ndxThe ID of the server used for this connection. This is an ID valid against the list of configured servers available through the proxy.backends object.


The proxy.backends table is partially writable and contains an array of all the configured backend servers and the server metadata (IP address, status, etc.). You can determine the array index of the current connection using proxy.connection["backend_ndx"] which is the index into this table of the backend server being used by the active connection.

The attributes for each entry within the proxy.backends table are shown in this table.

addressThe hostname/port combination used for this connection
connected_clientsThe number of clients currently connected.
stateThe status of the backend server. See Section 17.4.2, “Internal Structures”.


The proxy.queries object is a queue representing the list of queries to be sent to the server. The queue is not populated automatically, but if you do not explicitly populate the queue then queries are passed on to the backend server verbatim. Also, if you do not populate the query queue by hand, then the read_query_result() function is not triggered.

The following methods are supported for populating the proxy.queries object.

append(id,packet)Appends a query to the end of the query queue. The id is an integer identifier that you can use to recognize the query results when they are returned by the server. The packet should be a properly formatted query packet.
prepend(id,packet)Prepends a query to the query queue. The id is an identifier that you can use to recognize the query results when they are returned by the server. The packet should be a properly formatted query packet.
reset()Empties the query queue.
len()Returns the number of query packets in the queue.

For example, you could append a query packet to the proxy.queries queue by using the append():


Proxy Return State Constants

The following constants are used internally by the proxy to specify the response to send to the client or server. All constants are exposed as values within the main proxy table.

PROXY_SEND_QUERYCauses the proxy to send the current contents of the queries queue to the server.
PROXY_SEND_RESULTCauses the proxy to send a result set back to the client.
PROXY_IGNORE_RESULTCauses the proxy to drop the result set (nothing is returned to the client).

As constants, these entities are available without qualification in the Lua scripts. For example, at the end of the read_query_result() you might return PROXY_IGNORE_RESULT:


Packet State Constants

The following states describe the status of a network packet. These items are entries within the main proxy table.

MYSQLD_PACKET_ERRThe packet contains error information.
MYSQLD_PACKET_RAWThe packet contains raw data.

Backend State/Type Constants

The following constants are used either to define the status of the backend server (the MySQL server to which the proxy is connected) or the type of backend server. These items are entries within the main proxy table.

BACKEND_STATE_UNKNOWNThe current status is unknown.
BACKEND_STATE_UPThe backend is known to be up (available).
BACKEND_STATE_DOWNThe backend is known to be down (unavailable).
BACKEND_TYPE_UNKNOWNBackend type is unknown.
BACKEND_TYPE_RWBackend is available for read/write.
BACKEND_TYPE_ROBackend is available only for read-only use.

Server Command Constants

The following values are used in the packets exchanged between the client and server to identify the information in the rest of the packet. These items are entries within the main proxy table. The packet type is defined as the first character in the sent packet. For example, when intercepting packets from the client to edit or monitor a query you would check that the first byte of the packet was of type proxy.COM_QUERY.

COM_INIT_DBInitialize database
COM_CREATE_DBCreate database
COM_DROP_DBDrop database
COM_STMT_PREPAREPrepare server-side statement
COM_STMT_EXECUTEExecute server-side statement
COM_STMT_CLOSEClose server-side statement
COM_STMT_RESETReset statement
COM_STMT_FETCHFetch statement
COM_DAEMONDaemon (MySQL 5.1 only)

MySQL Type Constants

These constants are used to identify the field types in the query result data returned to clients from the result of a query. These items are entries within the main proxy table.

ConstantField Type
MYSQL_TYPE_NEWDECIMALDecimal (MySQL 5.0 or later)
MYSQL_TYPE_NEWDATEDate (MySQL 5.0 or later)
MYSQL_TYPE_ENUMEnumeration (compatible with MYSQL_TYPE_INTERVAL)

17.4.3. Capturing a connection with connect_server()

When the proxy accepts a connection from a MySQL client, the connect_server() function is called.

There are no arguments to the function, but you can use and if necessary manipulate the information in the proxy.connection table, which is unique to each client session.

For example, if you have multiple backend servers then you can set the server to be used by that connection by setting the value of proxy.connection.backend_ndx to a valid server number. The code below will choose between two servers based on whether the current time in minutes is odd or even:

function connect_server()
        print("--> a client really wants to talk to a server")
        if (tonumber("%M")) % 2 == 0) then
                proxy.connection.backend_ndx = 2
                print("Choosing backend 2")
                proxy.connection.backend_ndx = 1
                print("Choosing backend 1")
        print("Using " .. proxy.backends[proxy.connection.backend_ndx].address)

In this example the IP address/port combination is also displayed by accessing the information from the internal proxy.backends table.

17.4.4. Examining the handshake with read_handshake()

Handshake information is sent by the server to the client after the initial connection (through connect_server()) has been made. The handshake information contains details about the MySQL version, the ID of the thread that will handle the connection information, and the IP address of the client and server. This information is exposed through a Lua table as the only argument to the function.

  • mysqld_version — the version of the MySQL server.

  • thread_id — the thread ID.

  • scramble — the password scramble buffer.

  • server_addr — the IP address of the server.

  • client_addr — the IP address of the client.

For example, you can print out the handshake data and refuse clients by IP address with the following function:

function read_handshake( auth )
        print("<-- let's send him some information about us")
        print("    mysqld-version: " .. auth.mysqld_version)
        print("    thread-id     : " .. auth.thread_id)
        print("    scramble-buf  : " .. string.format("%q", auth.scramble))
        print("    server-addr   : " .. auth.server_addr)
        print("    client-addr   : " .. auth.client_addr)

        if not auth.client_addr:match("^") then
                proxy.response.type = proxy.MYSQLD_PACKET_ERR
                proxy.response.errmsg = "only local connects are allowed"

                print("we don't like this client");

                return proxy.PROXY_SEND_RESULT

Note that you have to return an error packet to the client by using proxy.PROXY_SEND_RESULT.

17.4.5. Examining the authentication credentials with read_auth()

The read_auth() function is triggered when an authentication handshake is initiated by the client. In the execution sequence, read_auth() occurs immediately after read_handshake(), so the server selection has already been made, but the connection and authorization information has not yet been provided to the backend server.

The function accepts a single argument, an Lua table containing the authorization information for the handshake process. The entries in the table are:

  • username — the user login for connecting to the server.

  • password — the password, encrypted, to be used when connecting.

  • default_db — the default database to be used once the connection has been made.

For example, you can print the username and password supplied during authorization using:

function read_auth( auth )
        print("    username      : " .. auth.username)
        print("    password      : " .. string.format("%q", auth.password))

You can interrupt the authentication process within this function and return an error packet back to the client by constructing a new packet and returning proxy.PROXY_SEND_RESULT:

proxy.response.type = proxy.MYSQLD_PACKET_ERR
proxy.response.errmsg = "Logins are not allowed"
return proxy.PROXY_SEND_RESULT

17.4.6. Accessing authentication information with read_auth_result()

The return packet from the server during authentication is captured by read_auth_result(). The only argument to this function is the authentication packet returned by the server. As the packet is a raw MySQL network protocol packet, you must access the first byte to identify the packet type and contents. The MYSQLD_PACKET_ERR and MYSQLD_PACKET_OK constants can be used to identify whether the authentication was successful:

function read_auth_result( auth )
        local state = auth.packet:byte()

        if state == proxy.MYSQLD_PACKET_OK then
                print("<-- auth ok");
        elseif state == proxy.MYSQLD_PACKET_ERR then
                print("<-- auth failed");
                print("<-- auth ... don't know: " .. string.format("%q", auth.packet));

17.4.7. Manipulating Queries with read_query()

The read_query() function is called once for each query submitted by the client and accepts a single argument, the query packet that was provided. To access the content of the packet you must parse the packet contents manually.

For example, you can intercept a query packet and print out the contents using the following function definition:

function read_query( packet )
        if packet:byte() == proxy.COM_QUERY then
                print("we got a normal query: " .. packet:sub(2))

This example checks the first byte of the packet to determine the type. If the type is COM_QUERY (see Section 17.4.2, “Internal Structures”), then we extract the query from the packet and print it out. The structure of the packet type supplied is important. In the case of a COM_QUERY packet, the remaining contents of the packet are the text of the query string. In this example, no changes have been made to the query or the list of queries that will ultimately be sent to the MySQL server.

To modify a query, or add new queries, you must populate the query queue (proxy.queries) and then execute the queries that you have placed into the queue. If you do not modify the original query or the queue, then the query received from the client is sent to the MySQL server verbatim.

When adding queries to the queue, you should follow these guidelines:

  • The packets inserted into the queue must be valid query packets. For each packet, you must set the initial byte to the packet type. If you are appending a query, you can append the query statement to the rest of the packet.

  • Once you add a query to the queue, the queue is used as the source for queries sent to the server. If you add a query to the queue to add more information, you must also add the original query to the queue or it will not be executed.

  • Once the queue has been populated, you must set the return value from read_query() to indicate whether the query queue should be sent to the server.

  • When you add queries to the queue, you should add an ID. The ID you specify is returned with the result set so that you identify each query and corresponding result set. The ID has no other purpose than as an identifier for correlating the query and resultset. When operating in a passive mode, during profiling for example, you want to identify the original query and the corresponding resultset so that the results expect by the client can be returned correctly.

  • Unless your client is designed to cope with more result sets than queries, you should ensure that the number of queries from the client match the number of results sets returned to the client. Using the unique ID and removing result sets you inserted will help.

Normally, the read_query() and read_query_result() function are used in conjunction with each other to inject additional queries and remove the additional result sets. However, read_query_result() is only called if you populate the query queue within read_query().

17.4.8. Manipulating Results with read_query_result()

The read_query_result() is called for each result set returned by the server only if you have manually injected queries into the query queue. If you have not manipulated the query queue then this function is not called. The function supports a single argument, the result packet, which provides a number of properties:

  • id — the ID of the result set, which corresponds to the ID that was set when the query packet was submitted to the server when using append(id) on the query queue.

  • query — the text of the original query.

  • query_time — the number of microseconds required to receive the first row of a result set.

  • response_time — the number of microseconds required to receive the last row of the result set.

  • resultset — the content of the result set data.

By accessing the result information from the MySQL server you can extract the results that match the queries that you injected, return different result sets (for example, from a modified query), and even create your own result sets.

The Lua script below, for example, will output the query, followed by the query time and response time (i.e. the time to execute the query and the time to return the data for the query) for each query sent to the server:

function read_query( packet )
        if packet:byte() == proxy.COM_QUERY then
                print("we got a normal query: " .. packet:sub(2))

                proxy.queries:append(1, packet )

                return proxy.PROXY_SEND_QUERY

function read_query_result(inj)
        print("query-time: " .. (inj.query_time / 1000) .. "ms")
        print("response-time: " .. (inj.response_time / 1000) .. "ms")

You can access the rows of returned results from the resultset by accessing the rows property of the resultset property of the result that is exposed through read_query_result(). For example, you can iterate over the results showing the first column from each row using this Lua fragment:

for row in inj.resultset.rows do
        print("injected query returned: " .. row[1])

Just like read_query(), read_query_result() can return different values for each result according to the result returned. If you have injected additional queries into the query queue, for example, then you will want to remove the results returned from those additional queries and only return the results from the query originally submitted by the client.

The example below injects additional SELECT NOW() statements into the query queue, giving them a different ID to the ID of the original query. Within read_query_result(), if the ID for the injected queries is identified, we display the result row, and return the proxy.PROXY_IGNORE_RESULT from the function so that the result is not returned to the client. If the result is from any other query, we print out the query time information for the query and return the default, which passes on the result set unchanged. We could also have explicitly returned proxy.PROXY_IGNORE_RESULT to the MySQL client.

function read_query( packet )
        if packet:byte() == proxy.COM_QUERY then
                proxy.queries:append(2, string.char(proxy.COM_QUERY) .. "SELECT NOW()" )
                proxy.queries:append(1, packet )
                proxy.queries:append(2, string.char(proxy.COM_QUERY) .. "SELECT NOW()" )

                return proxy.PROXY_SEND_QUERY

function read_query_result(inj)
        if == 2 then
                for row in inj.resultset.rows do
                        print("injected query returned: " .. row[1])
                return proxy.PROXY_IGNORE_RESULT
                print("query-time: " .. (inj.query_time / 1000) .. "ms")
                print("response-time: " .. (inj.response_time / 1000) .. "ms")

For further examples, see Section 17.5, “Using MySQL Proxy”.

17.5. Using MySQL Proxy

There are a number of different ways to use MySQL Proxy. At the most basic level, you can allow MySQL Proxy to pass on queries from clients to a single server. To use MySQL proxy in this mode, you just have to specify the backend server that the proxy should connect to on the command line:

$ mysql-proxy --proxy-backend-addresses=sakila:3306

If you specify multiple backend MySQL servers then the proxy will connect each client to each server in a round-robin fashion. For example, imagine you have two MySQL servers, A and B. The first client to connect will be connected to server A, the second to server B, the third to server C. For example:

$ mysql-proxy \
     --proxy-backend-addresses=narcissus:3306 \

When you have specified multiple servers in this way, the proxy will automatically identify when a MySQL server has become unavailable and mark it accordingly. New connections will automatically be attached to a server that is available, and a warning will be reported to the standard output from mysql-proxy:

network-mysqld.c.367: connect(nostromo:3306) failed: Connection refused
network-mysqld-proxy.c.2405: connecting to backend (nostromo:3306) failed, marking it as down for ...

Lua scripts enable a finer level of control, both over the connections and their distribution and how queries and result sets are processed. When using an Lua script, you must specify the name of the script on the command line using the --proxy-lua-script option:

$ mysql-proxy --proxy-lua-script=mc.lua --proxy-backend-addresses=sakila:3306

When you specify a script, the script is not executed until a connection is made. This means that faults with the script will not be raised until the script is executed. Script faults will not affect the distribution of queries to backend MySQL servers.


Because the script is not read until the connection is made, you can modify the contents of the Lua script file while the proxy is still running and the script will automatically be used for the next connection. This ensures that MySQL Proxy remains available because it does not have to be restarted for the changes to take effect.

17.5.1. Using the Administration Interface

The mysql-proxy administration interface can be accessed using any MySQL client using the standard protocols. You can use the administration interface to gain information about the proxy server as a whole - standard connections to the proxy are isolated to operate as if you were connected directly to the backend MySQL server. Currently, the interface supports a limited set of functionality designed to provide connection and configuration information.

Because connectivity is provided over the standard MySQL protocol, you must access this information using SQL syntax. By default, the administration port is configured as 4041. You can change this port number using the --admin-address command-line option.

To get a list of the currently active connections to the proxy:

mysql> select * from proxy_connections;
| id   | type   | state | db   |
|    0 | server | 0     |      | 
|    1 | proxy  | 0     |      | 
|    2 | server | 10    |      | 
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

To get the current configuration:

mysql> select * from proxy_config;
| option                     | value                |
| admin.address              | :4041                | 
| proxy.address              | :4040                | 
| proxy.lua_script           | mc.lua               | 
| proxy.backend_addresses[0] | mysql:3306           | 
| proxy.fix_bug_25371        | 0                    | 
| proxy.profiling            | 1                    | 
6 rows in set (0.01 sec)